what are we going to study the week of january 15 to january 19, 2018
SCIENCE: AKS: 1. obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to identify surface features on Earth caused by constructive and/or destructive processes
1b. develop simple interactive models to collect data that illustrate how changes in surface features are/were caused by constructive and/or destructive processes
1c. ask questions to obtain information on how technology is used to limit the impact of constructive and destructive processes
(Clarification statement: Examples could include flood control (dams, levees, and seawalls), urban planning (storm drains and vegetation replacement), engineering methods (contour plowing and terraces), construction methods and materials, and beach preservation (jetties).)
1d. ask questions to obtain information on how technology is used to predict the impact of constructive and destructive processes
(Clarification statement: Examples could include flood forecasting (Geographic Information Systems (GIS) maps), infrared/satellite imagery, and seismological studies.)
What are constructive processes? Constructive forces affect the earth's surface by building it up while forming new crust and landforms like mountains, islands, deltas, and sand dunes.
What are destructive processes? Destructive forces affect the earth's surface by breaking down landforms to form new ones through the processes of weathering and erosion.
How do constructive and destructive processes affect the surface features of the Earth? Earth’s crust is forever changing. The continents and ocean floors are part of Earth’s crust, which is broken into big pieces called plates. These giant plates float and move on top of the mantle. The areas where the plates meet are called boundaries. As the plates of the crust move, they can collide and form mountain chains. They can pull away from each other and form new crust along the ocean floor. They can also slide past each other and cause earthquakes.
Earthquakes and volcanoes are often found along these boundaries, as are mountain chains that formed when the boundaries collided. Even as constructive forces are creating landforms on Earth, destructive forces are wearing them down.
Weathering and erosion are two forces that are constantly acting to reshape the land.
Weathering is the breaking down of the materials of Earth’s crust into smaller pieces.
Erosion is the picking up and carrying away of the pieces. However, as these eroded pieces of rocks are carried along by wind, moving ice, or moving water, they eventually stop and are dropped to the bottom of the stream, lake, or ocean. The dropping off of bits of eroded rock is called deposition. This process helps to build up Earth’s surface by filling in depressions, or basins. Deposition also causes new sedimentary rocks to form, as well as new landforms including sand dunes and deltas.
What are the differences between chemical weathering and physical weathering? Chemical weathering involves the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. Chemical weathering turns the rock from one substance into another. For example chemical weathering in the form of acid rain can easily break down sedimentary rock like limestone. Mechanical weathering involves the breakdown of rock by physical means including pounding, grinding, and cracking. Agents of physical weathering include water, wind, gravity – even plants and animals. As water freezes, it expands. For example, because water expands as it freezes, rainwater that collects in the cracks of rocks can break apart the rocks when it freezes.
How does erosion occur? Erosion is the process whereby small pieces of soil, rock, and other material are carried by wind or water from one place to another. Rivers and streams often carry large amounts of silt and sand to larger bodies of water (lakes and oceans) where the debris is deposited. As particles settle out, they form new land. In the case of river delta, deposition creates new land along a coastline.
What role has technology and human intervention had in controlling constructive and destructive processes? Seismology- Although we can’t control the constructive and destructive forces caused by volcanoes and earthquakes, we can monitor them with the use of seismographs. Preparing for these events can control the amount of damage that occurs.
Dams are built across rivers to control the flow of running water. This helps to manage the destructive force of water erosion.
Levees are features along the sides of river that help to contain the flow of water. Rivers naturally create their own levees through the process of deposition. However, during flooding periods natural levees may not be strong enough to contain the water, and man-made levees must be added. These levees are often made of sandbags or concrete. They help to control the destructive force of water erosion.
Storm-Drainage systems are built along the streets to collect rain water that does not get into the soil. The water flows through a series of pipes until it is released into a large body of water. They help to control the destructive force of water erosion.
● Earth has changed over time.
● Understanding how landforms develop, are weathered, and eroded can help infer the history of the current landscape.
● Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to Earth forces.
● The patterns of evolution and adaptation of particular living organisms are connected to Earth processes.
● The location of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns.
● Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands along the boundaries between continents, but not all volcanoes occur in a chain.
● Maps can help locate the different land features where people live and in other areas of Earth. ● There may be rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds that impact Earth processes.
● Water is found almost everywhere on earth: as vapor, fog or clouds in the atmosphere; as rain or snow falling from clouds; as ice, snow, and running water on land and in the ocean; and as groundwater beneath the surface. The downhill movement of water as it flows to the ocean shapes the appearance of the land.
● Living things affect the physical characteristics of their regions (e.g., plants’ roots hold soil in place, beaver shelters and human built dams alter the flow of water, and plants’ respiration affects the air).
● All materials, energy, and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in multiple ways.
● A variety of hazards result from natural processes (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe weather) so that communities must prepare and respond to these events using technology. National Research Council.
MATHEMATICS: NF.7_b. apply and extend previous understanding of division to interpret the quotient of a whole number by a unit fraction and compute such quotients (e.g., create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 x (1/5) = 4)
24. NF.7_c. solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem, (e.g., how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?)
Practice, study, the two files below (whole number by a fraction and division of unit fractions) solve the problems given and turn in friday, january 19, 2018. Some of the answers are given to you but you must show your work and understanding.
Dividing by One-HalfSolve the four problems below. Which of the following problems can be solved by finding 3÷1/2?
- Shauna buys a three-foot-long sandwich for a party. She then cuts the sandwich into pieces, with each piece being 12 foot long. How many pieces does she get?
- Phil makes 3 quarts of soup for dinner. His family eats half of the soup for dinner. How many quarts of soup does Phil's family eat for dinner?
- A pirate finds three pounds of gold. In order to protect his riches, he hides the gold in two treasure chests, with an equal amount of gold in each chest. How many pounds of gold are in each chest?
- Leo used half of a bag of flour to make bread. If he used 3 cups of flour, how many cups were in the bag to start?